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Часть III, раздел 1. Чтение

Часть III состоит из 5 секций: Раздел 1, Раздел 2, Раздел 3, Раздел 4 и Раздел 5.

Инструкции к разделу 1.

Время, в течение которого желательно выполнить данный раздел: 12 минут

В данном разделе вам предстоит прочитать текст, написанный в научно - публицистическом стиле. По прочтении этого текста вам нужно будет ответить на несколько вопросов, к каждому из которых предлагается 4 варианта ответов. Будьте внимательны - вам нужно выбрать не просто подходящий по смыслу вариант, а тот, который наиболее полно отвечает на поставленный вопрос.





     The reasons for the extinction of a species, and for the rapid rates of change in our environment, are currently a focus of much scientific research. An individual species' susceptibility to extinction depends on at least two things: the taxon (the biological group - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, or genus) to which a species belongs, and the overall rate of environmental change. Fossil evidence shows that more mammals and birds become extinct than do mollusks or insects. Studies of the extinction of the dinosaurs and other reptiles during the Cretaceous Period show that a changing environment affects different taxa in different ways. Some may be dramatically affected; others less so.
     The best way to answer the question of what causes an extinction is to combine fields of inquiry and viewpoints. Using the fossil record and historical documentation, the different rates of extinction of various taxa and different responses to environmental change can be detected. Then, the evolutionary development of the different species can be compared and traits that may be disadvantageous can be singled out. Finally, researchers can use mathematical formulas to determine whether a population is likely to adopt itself tо the changing environment or disappear. Hopefully, as more of this information is collected, specialists in different fields -physiological and behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, evolutionary biology and systematics, biogeography, and paleobiology - will work together to make predictions about the broader changes that might occur in the ecosystem.

1.  Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

assessment of the work of specialists concerned with ecology
a discussion of possible causes of extinction, and of ways to make predictions about
     environmental change
the changing aspects of our environment
a comparison of the existing rates of different taxa

2.  The word susceptibility in line 3 is closest in meaning to:


3.  An example of a taxon would be:

a phylum
the rate of environmental change
a fossil
studies of extinction

4.  The author compares mammals and birds to:

mollusks and insects
phylum and class
dinosaurs and reptiles
ecologists and biologists

5.  It can be inferred from the passage that a significant event of the Cretaceous Period was:

the appearance of many taxa
the dramatic effect of the dinosaur on the environment
the extinction of birds
the extinction of dinosaurs

6.  It can be inferred from the passage that dinosaurs:

included species that were mammals
were better represented in the fossil record than other species
possessed disadvantageous traits
were not susceptible to extinction

7.  The word dramatically in line 8 means:


8.  The word fields in the line 9 is closest in meaning to:


9.  From the passage it can be inferred that disadvantageous traits are:

occuring at different rates
a contributing cause of extinction
learned by mathematical formulas

10. The expression singled out in line 15 is closest in meaning to:


11. According to the passage, the likelihood of a population becoming extinct can be:

lessened by the efforts of a few concerned specialists
unaffected by environmental change
determined by mathematical formulas
almost impossible to ascertain

12. The word broader in line 20 is closest in meaning to:  


Если вы закончили работу над предложенными заданиями,  нажмите на кнопку "Результат тестирования", и вы узнаете количество правильных ответов. Запишите эту цифру.

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Если закончили, переходите к Часть III, раздел 2. Чтение

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